(Nahda College News Letter(2) July(2019
This is the second issue of our Newsletter of the Nahda College.
This issue contains topics and abstracts in the regular sections: Health News, Nursing News, Quality Control and IT Corner.
From this issue we will hand over the editorial function to Dr. Yaser Mohamed Elhassan, Head of EDC.
We thank our contributors and readers for initiating this Newsletter.
Professor Abdelrahim Osman Mohamed
Nahda college is a college in Khartoum Sudan founded 2013 hosting a number of programmes including medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, medical laboratory sciences, nursing, information technology, Business Administration, Arabic, English and French Languages.The college has adopted innovative approach in the methods of instruction and teaching-learning process.The students actively Participate in the learning activities including community services and extracurricular innovations.
The students themselves represent real culture and geographic diversity among the Sudanese nationals in along with a group of international students from Africa, the Arabic world and Asia.Four programmes have already graduated receiving enormous praising from the external examiners.The college has an outstanding group of teaching staff both permanent and part time.The college has adopted Quality control in all its processes of teaching and administration lead by an energetic directorate of Quality control.Directorate of postgraduate studies and scientific research is newly established department in the college.
Its function will be to establish and manage post graduate studies in the college and to promote scientific researchThe Post graduate programme will soon start master and diploma in Business, laboratory sciences, medicine and nursing.This newsletter is a publication of this directorate to highlight scientific publications and activities in Nahda College and elsewhere.
Chikungunya2 – Sudan
Disease outbreak news
12 April 2017
- Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. It causes fever and severe joint pain. Other symptoms include muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash.
- Joint pain is often debilitating and can vary in duration.
- The disease shares some clinical signs with dengue and zika, and can be misdiagnosed in areas where they are common.
- There is no cure for the disease. Treatment is focused on relieving the symptoms.
- The proximity of mosquito breeding sites to human habitation is a significant risk factor for chikungunya.
- The disease mostly occurs in Africa, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. However a major outbreak in 2015 affected several countries of the Region of the Americas.
Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne viral disease first described during an outbreak in southern Tanzania in 1952. It is an RNA virus that belongs to the alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae. The name “chikungunya” derives from a word in the Kimakonde language, meaning “to become contorted”, and describes the stooped appearance of sufferers with joint pain (arthralgia).
Signs and symptoms
Chikungunya is characterized by an abrupt onset of fever frequently accompanied by joint pain. Other common signs and symptoms include muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash. The joint pain is often very debilitating, but usually lasts for a few days or may be prolonged to weeks. Hence the virus can cause acute, subacute or chronic disease.
Most patients recover fully, but in some cases joint pain may persist for several months, or even years. Occasional cases of eye, neurological and heart complications have been reported, as well as gastrointestinal complaints. Serious complications are not common, but in older people, the disease can contribute to the cause of death. Often symptoms in infected individuals are mild and the infection may go unrecognized, or be misdiagnosed in areas where dengue occurs.
Chikungunya has been identified in over 60 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe and the Americas.
The virus is transmitted from human to human by the bites of infected female mosquitoes. Most commonly, the mosquitoes involved are Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, two species which can also transmit other mosquito-borne viruses, including dengue. These mosquitoes can be found biting throughout daylight hours, though there may be peaks of activity in the early morning and late afternoon. Both species are found biting outdoors, but Ae. aegypti will also readily feed indoors.
After the bite of an infected mosquito, onset of illness occurs usually between 4 and 8 days but can range from 2 to 12 days.
Several methods can be used for diagnosis. Serological tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), may confirm the presence of IgM and IgG anti-chikungunya antibodies. IgM antibody levels are highest 3 to 5 weeks after the onset of illness and persist for about 2 months. Samples collected during the first week after the onset of symptoms should be tested by both serological and virological methods (RT-PCR).
The virus may be isolated from the blood during the first few days of infection. Various reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) methods are available but are of variable sensitivity. Some are suited to clinical diagnosis. RT–PCR products from clinical samples may also be used for genotyping of the virus, allowing comparisons with virus samples from various geographical sources.
There is no specific antiviral drug treatment for chikungunya. Treatment is directed primarily at relieving the symptoms, including the joint pain using anti-pyretics, optimal analgesics and fluids. There is no commercial chikungunya vaccine.
Prevention and control
The proximity of mosquito vector breeding sites to human habitation is a significant risk factor for chikungunya as well as for other diseases that these species transmit. Prevention and control relies heavily on reducing the number of natural and artificial water-filled container habitats that support breeding of the mosquitoes. This requires mobilization of affected communities. During outbreaks, insecticides may be sprayed to kill flying mosquitoes, applied to surfaces in and around containers where the mosquitoes land, and used to treat water in containers to kill the immature larvae.
For protection during outbreaks of chikungunya, clothing which minimizes skin exposure to the day-biting vectors is advised. Repellents can be applied to exposed skin or to clothing in strict accordance with product label instructions. Repellents should contain DEET (N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide), IR3535 (3-[N-acetyl-N-butyl]-aminopropionic acid ethyl ester) or icaridin (1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-methylpropylester). For those who sleep during the daytime, particularly young children, or sick or older people, insecticide-treated mosquito nets afford good protection. Mosquito coils or other insecticide vaporizers may also reduce indoor biting.
Basic precautions should be taken by people travelling to risk areas and these include use of repellents, wearing long sleeves and pants and ensuring rooms are fitted with screens to prevent mosquitoes from entering.
Chikungunya occurs in Africa, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Human infections in Africa have been at relatively low levels for a number of years, but in 1999–2000 there was a large outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and in 2007 there was an outbreak in Gabon.
Starting in February 2005, a major outbreak of chikungunya occurred in islands of the Indian Ocean. A large number of imported cases in Europe were associated with this outbreak, mostly in 2006 when the Indian Ocean epidemic was at its peak. A large outbreak of chikungunya in India occurred in 2006 and 2007. Several other countries in South-East Asia were also affected. Since 2005, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar and Thailand have reported over 1.9 million cases. In 2007 transmission was reported for the first time in Europe, in a localized outbreak in north-eastern Italy. There were 197 cases recorded during this outbreak and it confirmed that mosquito-borne outbreaks by Ae. Albopictus are plausible in Europe.
In December 2013, France reported 2 laboratory-confirmed autochthonous cases in the French part of the Caribbean island of St Martin. Since then, local transmission has been confirmed in over 43 countries and territories in the WHO Region of the Americas. This is the first documented outbreak of chikungunya with autochthonous transmission in the Americas. As of April 2015, over 1 379 788 suspected cases of Chikungunya have been recorded in the Caribbean islands, Latin American countries, and the United States of America. 191 deaths have also been attributed to this disease during the same period. Canada, Mexico and USA have also recorded imported cases.
On 21 October 2014, France confirmed 4 cases of locally-acquired chikungunya infection in Montpellier, France. In late 2014, outbreaks were reported in the Pacific islands. Currently chikungunya outbreak is ongoing in Cook Islands and Marshall Islands, while the number of cases in American Samoa, French Polynesia, Kiribati and Samoa has reduced. WHO responded to small outbreaks of chikungunya in late 2015 in the city of Dakar, Senegal, and the state of Punjab, India.
In the Americas in 2015, 693 489 suspected cases and 37480 confirmed cases of chikungunya were reportedto the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) regional office, of which Colombia bore the biggest burden with 356 079 suspected cases. This was less than in 2014 when more than 1 million suspected cases were reported in the same region.
In 2016 there was a total of 349 936 suspected and 146 914 laboratory confirmed cases reported to the PAHO regional office, half the burden compared to the previous year. Countries reporting most cases were Brazil (265 000 suspected cases), Bolivia and Colombia (19 000 suspected cases, respectively). 2016 is the first time that autochthonous transmission of chikungunya was reported in Argentina following an outbreak of more than 1 000 suspected cases. In the African region, Kenya reported an outbreak of chikungunya resulting in more than 1 700 suspected cases. In 2017, Pakistan continues to respond to an outbreak which started in 2016.
More about disease vectors
Both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus have been implicated in large outbreaks of chikungunya. Whereas Ae. aegypti is confined within the tropics and sub-tropics, Ae. albopictus also occurs in temperate and even cold temperate regions. In recent decades Ae. albopictus has spread from Asia to become established in areas of Africa, Europe and the Americas.
The species Ae. albopictus thrives in a wider range of water-filled breeding sites than Ae. aegypti, including coconut husks, cocoa pods, bamboo stumps, tree holes and rock pools, in addition to artificial containers such as vehicle tyres and saucers beneath plant pots. This diversity of habitats explains the abundance of Ae. albopictus in rural as well as peri-urban areas and shady city parks.
Ae. aegypti is more closely associated with human habitation and uses indoor breeding sites, including flower vases, water storage vessels and concrete water tanks in bathrooms, as well as the same artificial outdoor habitats as Ae. albopictus.
In Africa several other mosquito vectors have been implicated in disease transmission, including species of the A. furcifer-taylori group and A. luteocephalus. There is evidence that some animals, including non-primates, rodents, birds and small mammals, may act as reservoirs.
WHO responds to chikungunya by:
- formulating evidence-based outbreak management plans;
- providing technical support and guidance to countries for the effective management of cases and outbreaks;
- supporting countries to improve their reporting systems;
- providing training on clinical management, diagnosis and vector control at the regional level with some of its collaborating centres; and
- publishing guidelines and handbooks on case management and vector control for Member States.
WHO encourages countries to develop and maintain the capacity to detect and confirm cases, manage patients and implement social communication strategies to reduce the presence of the mosquito vectors.
Absence of K13 gene mutations among artesunate/sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine treatment failures of Sudanese Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Damazin, southeast Sudan
Muzamil M Abdel Hamid,Walla M E Abdallah Maazza Hussien,Niven M Mohammed Elfatih M Malik, Mohamed E Ahmed, Abdelrahim O Mohamed
The emergence of resistant parasites to artemisinin poses a threat to malaria treatment. The study aimed to investigate K13 gene mutations in Plasmodium falciparum artesunate (AS)/sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP) efficacy study in Sudan.
A total of 31 (14 failures and 17 adequate clinical and parasitological response [ACPR]) pretreatment dried blood samples from patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria treated with AS/SP were examined. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing of the K13 gene was performed.
PCR products were obtained from 30 (96.8%) samples and sequencing was successful in 28 (90.3%). No mutation of the K13 gene was recorded in the treatment failure group. A single mutation (C>T; A621V) in one ACPR patient sample was detected.
There is no evidence of K13 mutation among AS/SP treatment failure patients. A single mutation of the K13 gene not linked to treatment failure has been detected
Disease outbreak news
who 15 October 2018
On 31 May 2018, the State Ministry of Health (SMOH) of the Red Sea State in Sudan reported four suspected cases of chikungunya fever from Swakin locality, in Red Sea State. Among the signs and symptoms were sudden onset of fever, headache, joint pain and swelling, muscle pain and/or inability to walk.
The first suspected case of chikungunya in the neighboring Kassala State was reported on 8 August 2018, in a male travelling from the Red Sea State. Since then cases have been reported in three localities of the State (Kassala, West Kassala and Rural Kassala). On 10 August, among 24 collected blood samples, 22 samples tested positive for chikungunya by PCR and ELISA at the National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL) in Khartoum. On 9 September, an additional 100 samples were collected and pooled in batches of ten: 50% of pools tested positive for mixed chikungunya and dengue viruses, and all pools were positive for chikungunya virus.
From 31 May through 2 October 2018, seven States (Kassala, Red Sea, Al Gadaref, River Nile, Northern State, South Darfur, and Khartoum) have been affected with a total of 13 978 cases of chikungunya, 95% of which are from Kassala State. No hospital admission or death has been officially reported. Approximately 7% of the reported cases were children less than 5 years of age and 60% were females.
Public health response
- Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) and the Health Cluster organized an ad-hoc Health Cluster Coordination meeting to engage health cluster partners in addressing the current outbreak.
- FMOH in collaboration with WHO and partners prepared an accelerated response plan to scale up vector control and health education campaigns.
- Volunteers were mobilized to conduct house-to-house visits, inspection and targeted health education campaigns.
- WHO technically and financially supported the surveillance system and case management.
- WHO and partners provided logistical and financial support to the response operation (case management, surveillance, vector control, health education and risk communication) in affected localities in Kassala, Gadaref and Red Sea States.
- WHO mobilized funds to support the scaled up operations by the FMOH including deployment of various staff at both the Federal and State level.
WHO risk assessment
The overall risk of chikungunya at the national level is very high because of the following: presence of Aedes aegypti in most parts of the country, availability of breeding sites in houses and uncoordinated community involvement in vector control aggravated by the ongoing rainy season which favours the proliferation of the vector and spread of the outbreak to other states in the country. Also, in the absence of a good surveillance system to clearly define the dynamics of the outbreak, it is a big challenge to target the public health actions to control the outbreak. The lack of financial and technical resources to respond to needs, if not addressed immediately and properly, may lead to further escalation of the number of cases and eventually overwhelm the already over-stretched capacities of the country. The risk at the regional level is considered moderate. WHO Regional Office is already mobilizing its resources to support the ongoing outbreak and is prepared to support other neighbouring countries if the outbreak spreads outside Sudan. The overall risk at the global level is low.
Prevention and control of chikungunya relies heavily on reducing the number of natural and artificial water-filled container habitats that support breeding of the mosquitoes. This requires mobilization of affected communities. During outbreaks, insecticides may be sprayed to kill mosquitoes, applied to surfaces in and around containers where the mosquitoes land, and used to treat water in containers to kill the immature larvae.
For protection during outbreaks of chikungunya, clothing which minimizes skin exposure to the day-biting vectors is advised. Repellents can be applied to exposed skin or to clothing in strict accordance with product label instructions. For those who sleep during the daytime, insecticide-treated mosquito nets afford good protection.
Basic precautions should be taken by people travelling to risk areas and these include use of repellents, wearing long sleeves and pants and ensuring rooms are fitted with screens to prevent mosquitoes from entering.
Cancer Awareness among Non-medical University Students in Sudan
Qalawa, Shereen Ahmed A,Mohamed, Magda Aly,Eltayb, Rashida Abdelfatah M
Background: Cancer is now the second leading cause of death, after cardiovascular world wide, approximately 10 million people are diagnosed with cancer annually and more than 6 million die of the disease every year . Through early education and widened community awareness, modifiable risk factors could be ameliorated to decrease the population’s lifetime risk and some studies have shown that, despite the scientific evidence, the public is not well informed about the link between cancer and lifestyle and other cause that there are many factors that make population risk full for getting cancer Objective: The aim of the present study is to determine the extent of knowledge and preventive measures of cancer among adolescent groups, aged 17 to 23 , residing in Sudan on the .Subject and methods: descriptive research design was used included 277 non- medical university students from (El- Khartoum State) in Sudan . Data were collected through using one tool contains 4 main parts based on literature review & modified tool from Zyoud et al ,2010 . Results: The study revealed significant Relation between knowledge level regarding cancer risk factors scores with marital , the most of students aware with risk factors and warning signs of cancer and there are satisfactory total knowledge scores of studied cases in items related to types of cancer, warning signs and risk factors.
Conclusion & recommendations: The present study concluded that there are obvious needs for educational programme to increase students awareness of all types of cancer and it’s risk factors.Read more….
تجربة البرنامج فى الارشاد الاكاديمى
الارشاد الاكاديمي خدمة مهنية تقدم للطلاب بغرض تفعيل العلاقة بين الطالب واعضاء هيئة التدريس للتعرف علي المشكلات التي تعوق التحصيل العلمي والتفاعل مع متطلبات الحياة الجامعية ومن ثم تقديم المساعدة و الدعم من خلال توعية الطلاب بمسئولياتهم الأكاديمية وتزويدهم بالمهارات الأكاديمية المتنوعة . لرفع تحصيلهم الدراسي و مناقشة طموحاتهم العلمية.
الارشاد الاكاديمى هو مجموعة من الكفاءات والمهارات والمعارف تستخدم مجتمعة لاحداث تفاعلات بين المنهج الدراسى وطرق التدريس ومخرجات التعليم.
المنهج الارشادى: هو عبارة عن ملخص للارشاد فيما لايزيد عن 2000 كلمة تملك للطالب فى اول لقاء
المرشد الاكاديمى: هو عضو هيئة تدريس يقوم بتدريس دليل الطالب فى ساعات معتمدة فى الجدول
الغاية من البرنامج الارشادى :
تعزيز شعور الطلاب بالانتماء إلى المجتمع الأكاديمي، ودعمهم وتشجيعهم ليكونوا طلاب ناجحين داخل الكلية.
تجربة برنامج علوم التمريض بكلية النهضة – مقرر تمريض أمراض النساء والتوليد 2017 – 2018 هى فكرة بدات عند بداية الفصل الدراسي الخامس حيث كان اداء الطلاب متدنى فى اول اختبار (نسبة نجاح 17%)
- خطط القسم للتعرف على المشكلة بتحديدالأسباب من خلال مقابلات الطلاب فى جلسات الإرشاد الأكاديمي ومن ثم وضع الحلول المناسبة .
خلص البرنامج للاسباب الاتية حسب افادات الطلاب:
- ضعف التركيز اثناء الانشطة والاستذكار
- صعوبة استرجاع المعلومات
- عدم توفر زمن للمذاكرة (نتيجة للدراسة كل ايام الإسبوع وتاخر العودة للسكن)
- الحكم المسبق علي المقرر بالصعوبة والإعتقاد بذلك
الحلول التي وضعت لحل المشكلة كانت :
ارشاد ومساعدة الطلاب لإستخدام الطرق المساعدة فى لإستذكار ومنها:
- الخارطة الذهنية ( (brain mapping
- البطاقات (card )
- التحديد highlight)) وعمل الملاحظات
- الرسم البياني diagram
- التعلم مع الأقران peer learning
- العمل علي زيادة ثقة الطلاب وتشجيعهم علي ادراك الذات وتقويمها من خلال معرفة نقاط القوة و الضعف لكل طالب
- تشجيع الطلاب علي وضع قائمة للمهام وعمل جدول للمذاكرة وتنظيم الوقت .
- الإهتمام بالتغذية الجيدة والراحة.
- من خلال الإرشاد الأكاديمي تم شرح كل الطرق والوسائل اعلاه مع التمثيل ومن ثم تشجيع كل طالب ليطبق الطريقة التي تناسبه مع الاخذ فى الاعتبارالإرشادات الأخري.
- كذلك تم عمل مجموعة علي تطبيق الواتس تضم كل الطلاب والأساتذة بالقسم حتي يتمكن كل طالب وفي أي وقت ان يستفسر من خلال هذه المجموعة , وحينها قد يجد الرد من الزملاء او من الأساتذة
- توالت الإختبارات وحلها لكي يعرف الطلاب الطريقة الصحيحة لحل الأسئلة المختلفة. تقريبا كان هنالك إختبار كل إسبوعين ومع كل إختبار كان هنالك تحسن واضح بمستوي الطلاب.
- إمتحان منتصف الفصل النتيجة كانت أفضل بكثير الراسبون كانوا 14 طالب فقط. ولكن إيضا لم تكن النتيجة مرضية لأفراد القسم وواصلنا علي الخطة وأصبحت الإختبارات شبه إسبوعية
- وكذلك شجعنا جانب المراجعات الجماعية والتعلم مع الأقران وكانت النتيجة النهائية مبهرة لنا رسوب طالب واحد فقط.
- من العوامل التى ساعدت فى نجاح التجربة
- ثقة الطلاب بالاساتذة وبإنفسهم
- وجود العزيمة لديهم
- معرفة جوانب القوة لديهم
- وزيادة ثقتهم بانهم لا يختلفون عن غيرهم من طلاب الكليات الاخرى وانهم يستطيعون أن ينافسوا وان يكونوا من أميز الطلاب.
- التحليل الاحصائي
Comparison between Removing Noise Algorithms Method and Algorithms Bank Method in Measuring Liver Volume using CT Modality
Amir Mohamed Elamir,Riza Sulaiman,Khalda F. Ali
Measurement of the liver requires optimal cute, accurate and speedy. The scaling non-geometric soft organs in the human body using algorithms bank method to achieve the measuring liver volume with high efficiency, reducing the error rate. In the realization of the paper aspirations, the developing a platform, designing and developing the algorithms to calculate the organ. The analysis approach divided into image origin from CT, software application and development, prototype implementation and measurement, and associate the liver mass amount with Gold standard reading. The framework represents in three layers, technique, image, and application layer. The research focusing on the application layer. To make sure the fading of error and access to the value is equal to zero, use Artificial Neural Network.Read more….
Private Cloud: Effective Strategy in Developed Countries
Case Study: Sudanese Universities
Abdelrahman Osman, Hussien Abdulatif,Abusfian El-Gelany, Norma Alias
In order to achieve their business goals, educational organizations and institutions all over the World have become more dependent on information and communication technology (ICT). Internet services contributed to the improvement of the teaching-learning process, researches and other related activities. The cloud computing technology has effective applications, which offers students, staff, and administrative personnel access to educational resources at any time and from anywhere. Students have the opportunity to quickly and economically access various application platforms by sharing the resource based on cloud computing technology. In this paper, we investigated the benefits of adopting cloud computing services in higher education focusing on Sudanese universities, by sharing the hardware and software resources to minimize the cost. Private cloud computing proposed as a beneficial and practical solution. The benefits of adopting private cloud are highlighted. The solution took into account the unique features of Sudan and its related cultural context, flexibility, availability, security, quality of services and minimum operational cost. The solution highlights that the cloud computing technology is becoming an effective technology, for the reason that it is dynamic, scalable and useful in utilizing the limited resources. Read more….
SMART is abbreviation for:
- S = Specific
- M = Measurable
- A = Attainable
- R = Relevant
- T = Time bound
SMART objectives is objectives that include all components of SMART, relate to a single result and be clearly written
Specific: Objectives should be well-defined, and clear to other team members and to stakeholders it will answer the questions:
What exactly will you do? , What is the action? , What do you intend to impact? , Who is responsible for carrying out the action? , who is your target population?
Measurable: You should be able to measure whether you are meeting the objectives or not, the objectives should include the measure and the target
- Measure: It is the number, percent or some standard unit to express how you are doing at achieving the goal or outcome.
- Target: The desired level of performance you want to see that represents success.
Achievable: Objectives should be within reach for your team or program, considering available resources, knowledge and time.
Relevant: objectives should be important and related to general results or goals
Time bound:you should determine: When will this objective be achieved? And is this time-frame realistic?
How to turn objectives into SMART objectives:
- Objective:Offer training opportunities to staff.
|Specific- what is the specific task||Quality management will offer Quality Improvement training opportunities to staff.|
|Measurable: what are the measures and targets||% of staff completing Quality Improvement 101
|Achievable: is the task feasible or possible||Available budget, trainers, …|
|Relevant: is it relevant to specific goal|
|Time- bound: what are the start and end dates||Starting from July up to 31/12/2019|
|SMART objective:Quality management will offer Quality Improvement training opportunities resulting in 75% of staff completing Quality Improvement 101 by December 31, 2019.|
Key performance indicators (KPI)
- Key performance indicators (KPI) isameasurable expression for the achievement of a desired level of results in an area relevant to the evaluated entity’s activity
- KPIs make objectives quantifiable, providing visibility into the performance of individuals, teams, departments and organizations and enabling decision makers to take action in achieving the desired outcome.
- Setting key performance indicators for an organization usuallyhappens during the strategic planning phase, whether you do that yearly, quarterly or even more frequently, the goal is to ensure the entire organization is aligned towards the same objectives.
- KPIs help us to know whether we are succeeding in our mission, they are an important management tool for tracking progress against strategic goals, Working with KPIs encourages system thinking,and direct behavior towards achievement of the vision, goals and objectives.
- Typically,KPIs are monitored and communicated through dashboards, scorecards and other forms of performance reports.
Omima Ali Ibrahim
Quality monitoring and evaluation
- A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by a governance body within an organization. Policies can assist in both subjective and objective decision making. Policies to assist in subjective decision making usually assist senior management with decisions.
- Policies provide the framework within which the decision-makers are expected to operate while making decisions relating to the organization. They are a guide to the thinking and action of subordinates for the purpose of achieving the objectives successfully.
- Policies are typically promulgated through official written documents. Policy documents often come with the endorsement or signature of the executive powers within an organization to legitimize the policy and demonstrate that it is considered in force.
- They also lay down the limits within which decisions have to be made for accomplishing the enterprise objectives. They are the basis for executive operation and provide ready answers to all questions faced in running the enterprise. Some of the examples of policies are: an enterprise may follow a policy of selling its products only on a cash basis or may adopt a policy of employing only local people.
Sheiraz salah mohamedslhassan
Quality system and accreditation